The Facilities Management Library. New York: UPWORD Publishing, 1996. Ten volumes, hardcover.
Handbooks and manuals are staples of modern living. Each profession, occupation, hobby, or sport has books that summarize and explain that particular enterprise. In the world of facilities management, at least two important sets of manuals are available for APPA members. One set is APPA's own Facilities Management: A Manual for Plant Administration, and another is The Facilities Management Library by UPWORD Publishing Company. This column will review the latter set, using APPA's more familiar manual as a conceptual benchmark.
APPA's own George Weber edited the first comprehensive book on management of higher education facilities in the United States in 1974. His book, A Basic Manual for Physical Plant Administration, was jointly sponsored by APPA and The National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO). The book also was partially funded by a grant from the United States Department of Education and was intended for use as a basic text for a management institute for small institutions and historically black colleges and universities. Significantly, Weber, of the University of Maryland at College Park, was APPA President in the era when the organization established a headquarters office at One Dupont Circle in Washington, D.C. Paul Knapp was subsequently selected as APPA's first full-time executive director. Knapp s experience as the former editor of Buildings magazine helped Weber and the small staff publish A Basic Manual in record time.
In 1981, APPA's Professional Affairs Committee voted to prepare a new manual, and in 1984 the first edition of Facilities Management: A Manual for Plant Administration was published. This book was intended to be used as a basic text for APPA's Institute for Facilities Management, and was edited by Rex Dillow of the University of Missouri-Columbia. Dillow was not a president of APPA, but he was a strong advocate of the APPA office presence in Washington as a member of the higher education establishment. Dillow also served as interim executive director in 1985 until Walter Schaw was selected as the successor to Paul Knapp. Dillow also served as editor-in-chief of the second edition of the Facilities Management manual, which was published in 1989. This second edition offered expanded information concerning the rapidly evolving complexity of higher education facilities, especially regarding the deferred maintenance dilemma which threatened the entire academy.
Recently, APPA released its four-volume third edition of Facilities Management: A Manual for Plant Administration. This work, with William Middleton, formerly of the University of Virginia as editor-in-chief, is a tour-de-force on plant management for educational institutions; it features 67 chapters written by 74 authors covering 1,750 pages. Middleton served as APPA President in 1990, and, like Weber and Dillow before him, has spent countless hours helping APPA fulfill its mission to support the higher education community through professionalism in facilities management. In late 1996, UPWORD Company published a ten-volume set titled The Facilities Management Library. While not specifically aimed at higher education facilities managers, The Library does target facilities professionals and should have merit for members of the academy. The Library differs from most generic manuals on facilities management (several of which have been reviewed in The Bookshelf in the past two years) in that it is a multi-volume set written by many authors. Because The Library, comprising over 3,000 total pages, more nearly resembles APPA's manual, this review will discuss each volume separately, and then compare the entire package to APPA's recent third edition.
The Library is composed of ten monographs covering ten specific topics: indoor air quality, environmental management, fire protection, water quality/systems, lighting upgrades, electrical systems, intelligent buildings, interiors management, safety management, and disaster and recovery management. Each work is subtitled A Guide for Facility Managers. Two of the books are authored or edited by APPA members: Joseph Kish of Northeastern Illinois University acted as editorial advisor on Indoor Air Quality, while Dr. Mo Qayoumi of the University of Missouri-Rolla wrote Electrical Systems. A third writer, Kreon Cyros of Massachusetts Institute of Technology, acted as editor of Lighting Upgrades. The remaining authors, while not directly connected with higher education, represent trade publications and corporate facilities management perspectives. These books are reviewed below, in no particular order.
Indoor Air Quality, by Ed Bas, with Joseph P. Kish as editorial advisor. 323 pages.
Ed Bas is associate editor for The Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration News, one of the best trade publications available for the residential and commercial environmental systems market. His discussion of indoor air quality (IAQ) is very thorough, covering sick buildings, common hazards, basic HVAC systems, ventilation, filtration, humidity and moisture control, duct cleaning, and the establishment of an IAQ program. The book also includes a complete set of forms, prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, which are suggested for use in implementing the IAQ program. The author's emphasis on the need for HVAC system commissioning and implementing a practical IAQ program are right on target, as is most of the rest of the book. His emphasis on duct cleaning as a method for improving IAQ, however, must be considered very carefully, especially in large building HVAC systems where access to ductwork is often severely limited, in order to avoid exacerbating the problem rather than solving it. Bas' book is an excellent resource for facilities managers to help improve building environments.
Environmental Management by Regina Clarke, with William Gregory as editorial advisor and Larry Seigel as technical advisor. 281 pages.
The advisors for this book add credence to the guide's claim to discuss all the environmental issues that impact the successful operation of facilities in the United States. William Gregory is a past president of the International Facility Management Association (IFMA), and Larry Seigel of the Trane Company, a leader in promoting non-CFC alternate refrigerants, supervised the first commercial conversion of a large chiller to non-CFCs in the United States. Both are well versed in the green approach to managing the environment of large buildings, a perspective on the problem which is well articulated by the author. This book is divided into seven chapters and reviews the definition of environmental management, federal regulations, environmental assessments and audits, hazardous substances, energy management, and green buildings. An entire chapter is spent on CFC management, a topic which may be overemphasized now due to recent improvements in retrofit and recycling techniques for CFC machines. The book is important for the spin put on environmental management from the green building mindset, which correctly identifies construction methods and materials that can be both competitive and environmentally friendly.
Fire Protection by David H. Wagner, with Ira A. Marcus as editorial advisor, and Bob Wagner and Daniel Fraker as technical advisors. 350 pages.
Fire protection in modern facilities, especially in high-rise and high-tech buildings, is especially difficult to manage. The fire protection professional is concerned with prevention, protection and prompt response to fire emergencies, and these factors often produce conditions which cause problems for building occupants and facilities managers. The fire people are often perceived as the nay sayers or ticket writers who insist on imposing regulations (i.e., additional costs) on all facilities management-related projects. This book, written by a professional fire fighter from the Los Angeles Fire Department, describes the problems associated with fire protection in lay terms. The book covers the entire spectrum of fire protection management, including basic fire chemistry/physics, designing fire-safe buildings, various fire protection systems including special agent extinguishing systems, and portable extinguishers. Special attention and emphasis is placed on both renovation/retrofits and alarm/detection devices, and the author reviews all specific occupancies including historic buildings. Reading this book will give facilities management professionals a new cooperative outlook on a problem which in the past may have been reviewed in an adversarial light with fire safety professionals.
Water Quality and Systems, by Robert N. Reid. 288 pages.
This book features discussions of water supply, storm water, and waste water systems in straight-forward and non-technical language, and is an ideal reference for facility managers. It is not a pure design manual, nor is it intended as a course text. Rather, it deals with all water systems by describing the basic elements of each type, explaining how the various components operate. Topics of particular interest cover new water regulations, minimizing operational costs without compromising safety, and proper testing methods. Reid has produced a solid primer on general plumbing systems, and somewhere in the 16 chapters of the book is the answer, or directions to the answer, to most water/water quality questions. Water Quality and Systems can be used effectively to prepare executive summaries for review by non-technical and/or very busy administrators. The book is an excellent overview of plumbing systems for all institutions, regardless of size.
Lighting Upgrades by Damon Wood, with Kreon Cyros as editorial adviser, and Doug Townsley and Craig DiLouie as technical advisers. 421 pages.
As a consultant, Damon Wood developed and managed the technical support functions of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Green Lights program, authored EPA's Lighting Upgrade Manual, and established the Green Lights Lighting Upgrade Workshops. With the support of MIT's Cyros, lighting contractor Townsley and editor of Architectural Lighting DiLouie, Wood has compiled an impressive monograph on the pros and cons of lighting system upgrades for both interior and outdoor applications. The 21 chapters cover virtually all the aspects of lighting, starting with the fundamentals of lighting quality and efficiency, with a complete explanation of the various types of light sources and control systems. Specific applications are reviewed, including office, industrial and outdoor lighting designs. The book closes with suggestions on financial analyses, performance measurement and lighting maintenance, with an appendix which contains an excellent five-page bibliography of references and handbooks. Good and efficient lighting is not only a key ingredient of comfort and safety in an environment, but also plays a major role in utility costs. This book will help managers control comfort, safety and costs through well designed lighting upgrade projects.
Electrical Systems by Mohammad H. Qayoumi, with Craig DiLouie as editor. 250 pages.
Dr. Mo Qayoumi is a prolific writer and strong supporter of APPA, as evidenced by his participation in APPA's third edition of the manual: he wrote four chapters (three on electrical issues and one on financial analysis and control), and coordinated Energy and Utility Systems, the third volume of the four volume manual set. In Electrical Systems, he presents the topic on two levels, the technical and the practical. Each chapter includes a special Management Aspects section that condenses the specific subject matter into reference material for quick retrieval by management personnel. The book is divided into seven chapters, covering electrical system design and management, power generation and distribution, power and communication wiring, power quality, operational problems, and rate structures. The appendix contains a 23-page section on fundamentals of electricity, which should prove helpful to busy managers looking for concise basic information on the electrical crisis of the day. Electrical Systems is a solid management-oriented primer on electrical systems written by a professional higher education facilities manager.
Intelligent Buildings by Carter Myers, with Cynthia Samuelson as editorial advisor and Craig DiLouie as editor. 316 pages.
To Carter Myers, an intelligent building is one that gains optimum benefits from a complete building automation system, producing high productivity levels and low energy costs. The author indicates that the key to an intelligent building involves the integration of various systems which formerly operated as separate components with no communication or interaction between them. To explain this concept, Myers presents the book in four parts, first reviewing the current literature to support the need and desirability for such buildings. Myers follows with a discussion on each component or building block of an intelligent building, including HVAC, lighting, fire, security and communication systems, and then melds the various blocks together through various retrofit, management and integration strategies. The final section reviews the preparation of proposals to justify the installation of a complete building automation system, in order to reach the building, space and business management goals of an intelligent building. This book does explain the latest networking and cabling systems, and mounts a strong conceptual argument for coordinating various building systems. However, it does not appear to cover any new ground when reviewing computer-aided facilities management, HVAC, and energy management systems.
Interiors Management by Maggie Smith, with Anne Fallucchi as editorial advisor, and Marianne Berkey, Jim Cope, Lori Copsey, Eileen McMorrow, and Steve Tony as technical advisors.
Smith has, with the help of an excellent group of advisors, produced a readable review of facilities management from the interior designer perspective. As buildings have become more complicated, interior designers have been forced to take a multi-disciplinary approach to the workplace, integrating sound, lighting, color and ergonomic considerations into a cohesive design concept. Most architectural firms now rely on these interior designers to help bring together the many requirements of sophisticated building occupants and changing workplace environments. Interiors Management is divided into six chapters, and discusses linkages between worker and workplace, innovative space allocation, redefining the workplace in the information age, interior design strategies, ergonomics to promoted comfort and productivity, and legislation in the workplace. All facilities managers need to take advantage of the expertise of a discipline which has proved in recent years to be able to promote more productive and visually pleasing spaces for teaching and working.
Safety Management by Joseph F. Gustin, with Mert Livingstone as chief editorial advisor, and Joel Gecht, Robert Kaplan, David Rosenberg, and Stephanie Trudeau as technical advisors. 239 pages.
Safety Management is written to help facilities managers provide a safe and accessible environment for all facility occupants, and focuses on managing an effective safety program. The book has 12 chapters, beginning with a discussion on the elements considered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) to be essential to the development of such a program. The balance of the chapters review safety regulations and liability, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), ergonomics and productivity, violence in the workplace, safety assessment, developing and implementing a written safety program, record keeping, and the preparation for the dreaded OSHA inspection. The book concludes with a directory of safety-related resources and a discussion of successful safety programs. Also included in the appendix is a compilation of self-inspection checklists, taken from OSHA literature. Author Gustin has, with the help of his advisors who are occupational health and safety mavens with impressive credentials, developed a thoughtful and readable primer on safety management, which stresses not only the promotion of safety in the workplace, but also the need to thoroughly document a safety plan to comply with the requirements of the law. Each APPA institution without a written safety plan and undocumented safety activities should have this book.
Disaster & Recovery Planning by Joseph F. Gustin, with Jonathan Parries as technical advisor.
Earthquakes, hurricanes, fires, floods and, tornadoes happen. When these problems affect educational institutions, facilities managers have to be prepared to respond effectively to save lives, reduce damage, and allow the work of the academy to continue. Such disasters occur everywhere, and are equal opportunity crises regardless of institution size or sponsorship. The state of Georgia has recently witnessed a great flood that completely devastated Albany State University, and the tragic dam failure that snuffed out many lives at tiny Toccoa Falls Bible College. California State University at Northridge was a casualty of an earthquake on the West Coast, and Midwest flooding caused damage at Iowa State University recently.
While it is impossible to be completely prepared for such cataclysmic events, Gustin's Disaster and Recovery Planning can help facilities managers increase the odds for success under these extreme circumstances. The author reviews all the elements of disaster planning and recovery, including regulatory influences, emergency preparedness, fire and life safety, bomb threats, evacuations, earthquakes, computer and data protection, standby power systems, loss prevention, crisis planning and damage control, plan implementation, and managing the disaster and recovery effort. Like Gustin s other book Safety Management, Disaster and Recovery Planning should be used as a reference by institutions which have not developed a formal disaster plan.
UPWORD Publishing's Facilities Management Library is generally well written and very informative. Each volume complements the basic information included in APPA's four-volume Facilities Management manual, always adding width and breadth to the particular topic under discussion. APPA's Manual delivers a complete general overview of higher education facilities management, covering general administration and management, maintenance and operations, energy and utility systems, and facilities planning, design, and construction. UPWORD's library delivers specific information on ten very important topics, written by professional facility managers in both corporate and educational environments. APPA members should review each monograph topic, and decide whether additional information on some or all subjects are needed by their institutions. Good books are like good restaurants; the world can always use more of each. UPWORD's library has ten such good books, and the purchase of several or all of these should be considered carefully by all facilities managers.
Managing Higher Education as a Business, by Robert L. Lenington. Phoenix, Arizona: American Council on Education and The Oryx Press, 1996.
This book presents the observations of a veteran business officer, with 16 years experience in higher education and 24 years in private industry. Robert Lenington believes that many institutions of higher education are facing a fiscal health crisis and prescribes a dose of private-industry-business-practices as the cure. Why are books about business so boring? I do not know. Lenington at least provides a small book, which is one of its virtues. Being a small book about a large subject made the author condense his presentation and this removed the dross that weighs the eyelids and puts many inquisitive minds to sleep. It is important for facility officers to understand the basic operation of the institution's business affairs. This understanding helps the daily interface with other support departments, and aids in effective strategic planning. This book provides that basic understanding through chapters on the role of the chief officer, the operating budget, costing and pricing, marketing, revenue sources, fund raising, investment management, faculty, financial aid, and the physical plant.
Lenington believes that higher education s fiscal ills are due to faculty tenure, reduced teaching loads, increases in research, and a lack of strategic planning. He offers his opinions as to how these elements can be controlled. His basic solution is to focus on the student cost per seat in the same way that a factory owner would focus on cost per item.
People should debate whether the same process used to produce a tickle-me-Elmo and ten thousand other things, can be used to educate students. Those debates should focus on the core missions of colleges and universities: education, research, and community service. The facility department, though, is not at the core of the mission of higher education. It is a supporting business activity. As such, it can be managed like a business. There is not much to debate concerning this issue.
Unfortunately, Lenington does not give much direct guidance in facilities management. It is on the menu, but nothing is served. He notes that, behind salaries and benefits, the second largest cost of running an institution is the acquisition, construction and upkeep of the physical plant. Then he strangely omits the physical plant from a strategic place within the institution. The short chapter devoted to the physical plant is dusty and worm-eaten. Maybe the reason that Lenington has difficulty with the chapter on the physical plant is that it is uncommon for private business to operate facilities as inexpensively as colleges and universities. Compare your facility's operating costs against those published by BOMA, IFMA, and Tradeline Inc. Maybe the majority of colleges and universities have already adopted the practices of private industry. After all, they are not arcane.
Construction and remodeling, however, is a different issue. Here is where we usually get beat by private industry. Here is where we can save time and money. However, here is also where we are often constrained by the culture of higher education a culture of committees, shared governance, and inclusiveness that Lenington believes is causing the fiscal ills in higher education.
I would recommend reading this book. The description of business services is excellent. Although I wanted more from the chapter on the physical plant, descriptions of pertinent business practices, are found in other chapters. Some practices of note are full costing, and regular accounting of expense and revenue by category. In closing, it is a small book.