Scott Shader is manager, space planning and management, at the University of Missouri/Columbia, Columbia, Missouri. Anthony Vaughn is a space planning analyst at MU.
Prior to 1995, architectural and construction drawings at the University of Missouri-Columbia (MU) were maintained by Campus Facilities' Planning, Design and Construction Department where they were used primarily by the department's Design Services for remodeling and renovation plans, and by the Maintenance Department for electrical and plumbing work. Paper and mylar drawings were stored on hanging racks in a converted paint shop, and in tube files in the basement of the Campus Facilities building. Renovation plans were hand-drafted on existing documents or new drawings were created. In the early 1990s, Design Services personnel began using the AutoCAD (computer assisted design) program in architectural work. As a building, or section of a building, came up for renovation, university students employed part time, on an "as-needed" basis and using the original floor plans and field measurements, would draw building floor plans in AutoCAD files for use in developing renovation plans. When completed, CADD drawings were stored on a local network until the project was finished, and then transferred to storage on floppy disks.
Concurrent with the use of AutoCAD, Campus Facilities utilized a main frame database system for space inventory information. The DataFlex software program, maintained separately from Design Services' CADD files, was used to store building and room information, including square footage, room use and department ownership. This system suffered, however, in that square-footage information was derived from "measuring off" paper floor plans, and room use and ownership were only sporadically checked or changed. To this point, space planning at MU had been rather undervalued; its potential unrealized a perspective that, toward the mid-90s, was to change.
The Space Planning and Management Office is Created
Space planning efforts began in earnest at MU in February 1995 when the Space Planning and Management office (SPAM) was created by MU's assistant vice chancellor for facilities. A space planner was hired to coordinate and manage the office, which consisted of one semi-retired employee who maintained the DataFlex program, a drafting technician, and three part-time student workers.
Standardization Begun; New Software Selected
The first priority for SPAM staff was developing and maintaining an accurate space inventory and CADD floor plans for buildings owned or leased by the university. Future space planning by the office would require this foundation of reliable information from which to work. Floor plans were drawn and maintained in AutoCAD R13; and Paradox 5.0 was selected to temporarily replace the DataFlex main-frame data base system until a permanent data base could be constructed using Archibus FM10, which directly ties drawings to the space inventory. A building-touring process and schedule were developed to ensure accuracy and consistency in the CADD drawings.
Before field touring and building space measurement began, existing floor plans were compared to data base information to isolate problems, such as rooms appearing in the inventory but not on floor plans, and vice versa. Structural changes, architectural features, seating, room use, and department ownership were recorded in the field for inclusion in the AutoCAD drawings and the Paradox data base. Exterior measurements were also made to serve as checks against interior dimensions.
The SPAM Manual is Created
The touring process and standards and procedures ensuring consistency between the buildings and CADD drawings were incorporated into Space Planning and Management's Policies, Standards, and Conventions Manual, which has approximately 40 pages devoted to the space inventory update process and floor plans. The manual also covers SPAM's customer service philosophy, floor and room numbering, polylines, complex plans, drawing and title-block prototypes, scaling, and procedures for processing information requests. A large portion of the manual covers layering standards.
While some in-house layers were created for polylines, hatching, and descriptive text the office maintains, SPAM has conformed for the most part to American Institute of Architects layering guidelines for drawings. Space Planning and Management in 1996 converted to AIA's Proposed Standards, which were replaced by the institute's 1997 Adopted Standards. Revisions to the adopted standards are now in process and will be incorporated in SPAM's Policies, Standards and Conventions manual.
Computerization of MU's Space Continues
By 1995, only 5 percent of the university's owned and leased buildings had been converted to AutoCAD drawings. Computerized floor plans of all the university's 1,100 buildings, comprising some 15 million square feet of space, are now available, and the buildings are regularly retoured for drawing revisions. The university's Education & General buildings are on a two-year retouring schedule; recharge or auxiliary buildings are revisited every three years. Layer information is included in the border and title-block prototype used for all new construction and floor plan updates. The space planning office has developed AutoCAD routines that, in existing drawings, update layers to current standards. Due to AIA revisions, a different routine has been developed for each change, with the appropriate routine run when the floor plan is inserted in the new border a necessary standardization due to the variety of people using the drawings.
MU's Buildings and Floor Plans on the Web
Through the Internet capabilities of AutoCAD R14 and the AutoDesk Whip program, floor plans for some 200 major campus buildings are now on the Web, accessible via an interactive campus map or building list through MU's campus facilities' home page (http://www.cf.missouri. edu). Square footage information and buildings where security and safety issues exist e.g., the nuclear reactor, power plant, etc. are excluded.
Floor plans are maintained on the Web in a rasterized,' or read-only format for non-technical use by faculty, students and staff in locating particular buildings, classrooms, offices, or other areas within buildings. Web users can pan, zoom, and print from the computer monitor but cannot manipulate or replace original drawings.
Technical users who need floor plans for planning and programming must request from SPAM "vectored," or "live" CADD drawings that can be copied to their network and edited. Campus Facilities' Design Services use AutoCAD drawings for preliminary planning and programming, as do off-campus architectural and engineering firms for other construction projects. Telecommunications personnel overlay telephone and computer network lines and connections for tracking and line maintenance. Environmental Health and Safety tracks chemical and radioactive material use and storage information; and Residential Life and the University Hospital access drawings for independent in-house design and maintenance programs. While technical users can copy and modify drawings, like Web users, they cannot change or replace the originals.
While this process allows tighter control and maintains the integrity of the AutoCAD drawing files, it also creates extra steps in placing floor plans online. Drawings are replaced as revisions are made. Whenever floor plans are revised in CADD, a copy of the drawing must be converted to a Web format for non-technical users. Whenever floor plans are created, a copy of the drawing must be converted to both Web and CADD formats for non-technical and technical users, respectively.
Future Web Plans. Phase II of SPAM's space computerization placing on the Web drawings of approximately 900 buildings located on agriculture experiment stations or farms and other locations throughout the state of Missouri will soon follow. Like floor plans presently on the Web, Phase II drawings will be accessible through MU's home page, and available via an interactive campus map or an alphabetical listing of buildings.
SPAM's Space Modeling Surveys and Reports
Floor plans, such as those now on the Web, are the basis for accurate space planning and, in some ways, are a by-product of this effort. Space inventory data, square footages, room use and department ownership, is derived from information gained by touring facilities and creating precise CADD floor plans. While a valuable reporting tool, space inventory information is still only one piece of the total space planning process.
SPAM's Annual and Alternating Surveys. An annual and alternate survey conducted every other year contribute to the university's final space model, as well as to indirect cost reporting.
The annual space utilization survey is a two-purpose report is sent each January to officials in all academic and non-academic divisions of the university, listing all space under their control. Each is asked to first verify space ownership and confirm that the reported use of space is correct. Space owned and/or controlled, but not listed, can then be added by report recipients and the information updated. The space-use database then is changed when this ownership is verified by SPAM. Second, report recipients are asked to break out each room's activities, by percentages, into the following categories: instruction, university-funded research, externally funded research, public service, departmental administration, student services, general administration, plant operation and maintenance, library, auxiliary enterprises, service operations, and teaching hospital and clinics. Room percentages and square footage information, used for the space planning model, are also used for indirect-cost reimbursement reporting.
These reports, along with copies of floor plans tied to each department and an instruction packet, are sent each year to more than 300 departments. To meet the January deadline, staff and students begin in November to copy and print floor plans and instruction packets. The reports themselves are printed after January 1, the date on which space data base information is frozen. The information is then submitted for revision and updating to the 20-member Space Utilization Coordination group, which represents various academic and non-academic divisions of MU. During this transition to electronic reporting, the surveys that will be conducted in 1999 will have the floor plans and instruction packets available on the Web. For those users yet uncomfortable with electronic reporting, a printed report will also be published and distributed. Surveys conducted by SPAM eventually will be distributed electronically over the Internet or campus networks as reporting methods and security issues are worked out.
The Three Alternating Surveys. Space Planning and Management also produces three other surveys office, instruction, and research space information is collected in separate surveys developed to garner particular types of information.
The office space survey is designed to determine how many people, by FTE, require office space. Including employees simply by title or other generalizations, overinflates office space requirements not all employees require office space to do their jobs or work in the department paying their salaries.
A research space survey is used to gather similar information. The purpose of this survey is to gather data on the number of FTEs who are performing university-funded and externally funded research. This information will be used to help the campus plan for adequate research space.
An instance of the overgeneration of research space occurs when staff conduct research in one department but are paid by another, a situation that develops when a type of space required for research is used or when research is in conjunction with the second department. In this instance, space requirements for the paying department are overgenerated, while the needs of the department providing the space are undergenerated.
A unique difficulty associated with both research- and office-space surveys is the inclusion of payroll data base information. While income information is excluded, Social Security numbers are shown to distinguish individuals with similar names.
The instructional space survey identifies space requirements for classes and students outside of those needed for actual instruction. Many instructors today expect students to spend a minimum number of hours per week in computer and other learning laboratories. While formulas exist with which to determine types and amounts of space needed based on enrollment, the instructional space survey allows SPAM to refine the generated needs. While space utilization reports and office and research surveys are normally completed at an administrative level, this survey requires involvement at the instruction level. Different instructors may require different levels of outside work for the same class, thereby generating additional hours and square footage. These surveys and reports, along with the inventory information, contribute to the space model generated by SPAM.
SPAM's Space Generation Model/Report
With information gathered from the above surveys, SPAM produces a formula-driven Space Generation Model, a report on space-use on the MU campus, which is presented each July to the MU provost and chancellor. The report categorizes existing and generated space department needs along lines described in the 1992 Post-Secondary Education Facilities Inventory & Classification Manual published by the National Center for Educational Statistics. Classroom facilities, office and conference space, research-, class- and open-laboratories areas, storage space and an all-inclusive "other" category, are classified by department for additional space-needs study. Existing space information is derived from the space inventory data base, while generated-space needs are developed from FTE information on students, faculty and staff, as well as office, instructional, and research space surveys.
Refining the Space Generation Model's Planning Standards. Formulas for generating certain types of space needs on campus involve standards researched and developed by SPAM. The office currently has square footage for typical offices, classrooms, animal labs, and library space. Office space is broken down by title and function to account for varying responsibilities and duties. A more extensive list, based on academic disciplines, has been created for research and teaching laboratory space. Planning standards for other types of space e.g., student recreation space, animal facilities, greenhouses, etc. are currently being studied; square footages for all planning standards are continually being refined and benchmarked against information gathered from peer institutions.
Getting MU Administration More Involved. The next step in refining the space generation model involves bringing more people into the space-planning process. Results of the space model will be reviewed with deans or other administrative heads of the university's divisions to discuss the space findings generated by the model. The survey process is relatively new to department heads. As campus administrators are coming to rely on information generated by the model, it is imperative they understand the importance and implication of information they report to SPAM. The possibility exists they may not yet fully understand either what is expected of them, or the use and importance of the information sought both of which can result in inattention to, and the inaccuracy of, requested information.
Inventory and Calculation of Replacement Costs
While surveys and modeling comprise an important component of space planning, SPAM has myriad responsibilities. The data generated through the space inventory are also utilized in calculating replacement values for the MU campus. Working with the University of Missouri System's Facility Planning and Development Office, SPAM generates annually the replacement cost for all buildings and structures on campus. In conjunction with the UM system, the state has developed a schedule of replacement costs by square foot for approximately 75 types of structures, the dollar figures of which are adjusted each July to reflect changes in the Engineering News Record's inflation rate guidelines within which SPAM works.
In addition to its use in calculating insurance replacement values and premiums, the replacement-costs-by-square-foot figure is used each year by the university to determine maintenance and repair monies received. Of consideration in the present replacement-costs system is the classification of buildings by singular uses no building is entirely an office or classroom building, or high-tech laboratory. A more accurate method under consideration is the use of this schedule for calculating the building's actual square footage on the basis of space-use categories.
The amount of funding Campus Facilities now receives for maintenance and repair is based on one and one-half percent of the replacement value of its facilities. It is therefore essential that an accurate space inventory is maintained. As matters now stand, since 1996, MU campus space has increased by over 2 million square feet and some $252 million in replacement value.
Space Planning at MU: A Summary
In maintaining accurate space information and floor plans, SPAM provides data for significant broad-based financial, space planning and Web activities. The space inventory data have proven to be credible with federal, state and local governments for financial and space-related purposes and, for the last several years, have aided MU in recovering additional monies through Indirect Cost Reimbursements and Medicare/ Medicaid. The computerization of information and maintenance of floor plans and space inventory data now allow computer access to floor plans not only by staff, faculty, students, and visitors to the MU campus, but to the world at large. Through these accomplishments, which culminate in the assembly of the space generation model, SPAM is not only looking at the short-term data and space needs of the campus, but is also setting a pace for the electronic exchange of information and ideas in the areas of strategic, space and financial planning that will make MU a national leader in space planning and management as education moves into the 21st century.